The establishment of Makkah:
The history and building of Makkah is directly connected to Prophet Ibraaheem as he was the first person to settle his family in it when he left his wife Haajar and his son Ismaa’eel there in compliance with the command of Allaah for him to do so.
Imaam Al-Bukhaari reported on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbaas in the long narration in which the Prophet informed us that Ibraaheem once came with his wife Haajar and his son Ismaa’eel who was still a suckling infant, from ancient Syria to Makkah. At that time, Makkah had no water and nobody residing in it. Ibraaheem took them both under the shade of a tree and left with them a bag of dates and a flask of water, then headed back to ancient Syria. As he was leaving, his wife Haajar called to him, saying: “Where are you going? How can you leave us in this deserted valley that has neither humans nor anything else (in terms of life)?” She repeated this a few times but he did not reply, so she asked: “Did Allaah command you to do this?” Ibraaheem replied: “Yes” Thereupon she said: “Then He shall never forsake us”.
Ibraaheem walked for a while and then stood upon a small hill, raised his hands in supplication, and said, as Allaah informs us saying (what means): “Our Lord! I have settled some of my descendants in an uncultivated valley near Your sacred House, our Lord, that they may establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grateful.” [Quran 14:37]
Allaah blessed Haajar and her son with the well of Zamzam, and then people came from all directions and resided in Makkah. The first tribe to reside there was the tribe of Jurhum among whom Ismaa’eel grew up and from whom he married.
Ibraaheem came many times to Makkah to check upon their condition, and later Allaah commanded him to build the Ka’bah; Allaah says (what means): “And [mention] when Ibraaheem (Abraham) was raising the foundations of the House and [with him] Ismaa’eel (Ishmael), [saying]: 'Our Lord! Accept [this] from us. Indeed, You are the Hearing, the Knowing.'” [Quran 2:127]
Allaah also says (what means): “And [O Muhammad], when We designated for Ibraaheem (Abraham) the site of the House, [saying] “Do not associate anything with Me and purify My House for those who perform Tawaaf (circumambulation of the Ka’bah) and those who stand [in prayer] and those who bow and prostrate.” [Quran 22:26]